Showing posts with label Living with Diabetes. Show all posts

How to prevent diabetes

Diabetes is a serious disease that affects a person's life,Recently, it has been observed that the incidence of infection is increasing because of the rapid and lazy lifestyle and lack of information that people carry.
Diabetes :
Diabetes is an increase in blood sugar Due to the inability of glucose to move to cells For some reason we will come to mention later To supply it with the energy it needs and thus increase its rate in the blood,The hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar is insulinAny imbalance in its production causes diabetes.
Diabetes results in many serious complications such as Wound healing   and burns healing delay. It is always advised to get diabetics as far away as possible from different injuries because the process of delayed wound healing may cause gangrene And can lead to cutting off the injured organ. Diabetes also affects nerves and eye causing injury with retinal degeneration.
Types of diabetes :
Diabetes is divided into three types :
Type I : It is caused by the lack of insulin or  its low quantity. You can not regulate blood sugar, The organ responsible for the production of insulin is the pancreas.
Type II : It is caused by the inability of insulin to regulate blood sugar And transfer it to the cells in the form of glucose.
Type III : It is the pregnancy diabetes that affects some pregnant women in some cases, It is rare. 

Causes of Diabetes :
- Genetic factors have a significant role in the rate of getting diabetes  , the more people in the family having diabetes, the higherthe riskof gettingthe diseas. 
- Weight gain and obesity helps to weaken the pancreatic function, As well as eating large amounts of meals that contain a lot of fat and a large proportion of sugars are some of the most important risk factors of diabetes.
- Lack of exercise and lack of movement.
- Smoking.

Prevention Of Diabetes:
- Eat healthy food rich in vegetables and fruits.
- Stay away from takeaway and fatty meals high in calories and fat. Eating high-sugar sweets should be minimized.
- Leave smoking and stay away from places where smokers gather for not inhaling the smell of harmful smoke.
- Try to relax and stay away from excess stress.
- Exercise to stimulate blood circulation on the one hand, and on the other to get rid of excess weight and obesity And fat burning .

How To Maintain Your Blood Sugar Levels Within the Normal Range

Our societies suffer from many health problems and diseases because of the changing patterns of human behaviour, changing patterns of nutrition, and the contribution of various environmental factors like pollution and noise.
All of this contributed in the occurrence of some of the diseases whether physical or psychological and among those diseases that spread in our communities is Diabetes.
The statistics show an increase in the proportion of the incidence of the disease in all age groups, and an increase of the treatment burden of this disease on the individual and the community, and also the burden on government with a large budget allocated to treat the patients.
what is diabetes? What is the treatment? And what is the way that keeps the blood sugar of the patient within the normal range?

Normal Ranges Of Blood Sugar :

Diabetes occurs either due to the result of deficiency and lack of insulin secretion (i.e. insufficient insulin hormone in the body because of the destruction pancreatic cells by the immune system ) , which is called type l diabetes , Or it may occur due to The inappropriate response of the  body cells to the hormone insulin, and thus the malfunction of the hormone insulin, which is primarily responsible for the conversion of sugar in the blood to energy,  so the amount of sugar in the blood increases , which may cause many complications like:
-          injury to the kidneys , nerves and blood vessels .
-         The patient may develop vision loss and other serious complications, so the diabetic patient should maintain a normal level of blood sugar to avoid these symptoms and complications.
And maintaining normal blood sugar  levels is acheived by:
- following a special diet, while maintaining a constant amount of meals and having them at certain fixed times.
- weight loss and regular exercise on a daily basis as it helps to improve blood sugar levels .
-  Avoid sugar and sweets and replace them with industrial sweeteners.
- Eat fruits and natural unsweetened fruit juice.


How To Know If You Have High Blood Sugar ?

What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects humans. It is caused by the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin to the body, or because of insulin resistance by tissues .
But , what is insulin?
The insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which regulates the amount of sugar in the blood, when diabetes occurs , the pancreas will be unable to secret insulin or it secretes it but the body cannot use it, and thus the amount of sugar in the blood increases, and this leads to the damage of many body organs and such as nerves and blood vessels and others .
 Symptoms of diabetes:
 The symptoms of diabetes vary from person to person depending on the type of diabetes the person has. There are three types of diabetes that will be discussed in this topic: type I diabetes , type II and gestational diabetes, and often the symptoms are not clear, the person does not know that he has the disease, except when  he has the tests that confirm it, and the symptoms of diabetes can be summarized in:
-         Persistant feeling of thirst
-         urination at close times and in large amounts.
-         Decreased weight for unspecific reasons.
-         Persistant  feeling of hungry.
-          confusion of vision and other sight disorders .
-         Feeling tired.

Types of diabetes:
 There are several types of diabetes, namely:

Type I diabetes: It is sometimes called childhood diabetes, because it usually affects young children, and it is associated with  lack of insulin production, and it requires patients to take insulin on daily basis, and so far Doctors and researchers could not know the cause of this type of diabetes, or ways to prevent it, the symptoms that accompany this type include:
-         feeling thirsty .
-         - excessive urination.
-         weight loss.
-         - vision disorders.
-         - feeling of fatigue and hunger.

these symptoms may suddenly appear in the patient of this type of Diabetes.

 Diabetes type II: This type of diabetes is caused by the inability of the body to effectively use insulin produced by the body, and this type is not linked to the lack of insulin production as in the first type.
This type of diabetes is found in 90% of people with diabetes around the world Especially in the elderly and it’s due to the lack of physical activity or excessive weight gain.
 Symptoms of this type are similar to symptoms of the first type including thirst, disturbances in vision, urination, feeling tired and hungry, but they do not appear clearly as in the first type, so the patient may not know that he suffers from diabetes unless when the disease worsens and the complications emerge.

Gestational diabetes: This type of diabetes is linked to pregnancy and type l and type ll ,usually  it cannot be detected by the patient easily, and usually it is detected during the routine tests conducted before birth, and the cause of the disease is that the placenta - during pregnancy - secretes hormones to support pregnancy, and these hormones make the cells more resistant to insulin, and in the late two thirds of pregnancy, the placenta grows in size and thus secretes a larger amount of these hormones that resist insulin and the pancreas responds in natural cases by producing larger quantities of Insulin, but the pancreas may reach a stage where it cannot keep up with this resistance ,thus Insulin accumulates in the blood and cells cannot use it.
All pregnant women are at risk of developing gestational diabetes, but it is more likely to occur in women over the age of 25 and overweight women and those with genetic susceptibility .
 It is noteworthy that the majority of women who have gestational diabetes give birth to healthy children, but if the level of sugar in the blood of the pregnant was high and unmonitored, it can cause health problems for the mother and the fetus, such as:
- abnormally big sized baby .
-  large amounts of blood sugar in the child may also increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes when he gets older .
-in some serious cases this leads to the death of the fetus.

Complications :
Diabetes can cause serious health complications, including diseases in the heart, kidneys, blood vessels, eyes and nerves.
It also causes cardiovascular disease and can lead to strokes and heart attacks, which causes death in half of people with diabetes around the world. .
 Diabetes causes nerve damage in many disorders, which appear as tingling or pain in the limbs.
 It may also cause kidney failure, which causes the death of 200%?? of people with diabetes.
Diabetes can cause major retinal disorders that can lead to blindness in 2% of cases. It affects small blood vessels in the eyes, which damage the retina and cause vision problems.
 The following tips can be used to prevent or delay the onset of diabetes:
-         Maintain a healthy weight and lose weight by exercising daily, or at least walking for 30 minutes a day and eating a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables at a rate of five servings per day.
-         decrease sugars and saturated fat in the diet.
-         Avoid smoking and other habits that negatively affect the blood vessels.

Diagnosis and treatment :
Diabetes can be diagnosed by simple, low-cost procedures such as blood glucose tests during fasting or random blood glucose tests. If the level of sugar in the blood is high, the doctor will usually recommend other tests to determine the type of the Diabetes, either type l or ll, and therefore determine the appropriate treatment in this case, and he can recommend the patient to test the hemoglobin in the blood . Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed during regular tests in pregnancy.

How to treat diabetes

Diabetes is a very common chronic disease, which the patient suffers from throughout his life, and it affects the ability of the body to extract the energy of glucose sugar from food.
 In a healthy human body, carbohydrates and sugars in food are broken down into  glucose molecules. This molecule supplies the body's cells with the energy needed to perform its vital functions, but it needs  insulin hormone to help it enter the cells. 

In diabetes, either the body's ability to produce enough insulin, or the insulin ability to function in cells , or both, is reduced.
 Since glucose can not enter the cells, it accumulates in the blood and damages small blood vessels in the kidneys, heart, eyes and nervous system. Therefore, failure to properly treat diabetes results in the destruction of these vital organs, thus endangering the patient's life.

 Diabetes has three main types: type I, type II, and Gestational diabetes . The first type is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the cells responsible for the secretion of insulin, so the pancreas stops the secretion of insulin or begins to excrete insufficient amounts to regulate the level of glucose in the blood. About 10% of diabetics in the United States suffer from this type of disease. The first type of diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood or early adolescence. These patients rely on insulin injections on a daily basis to control the disease. 

   The second type is the most common, with a percentage of about 90% of people with diabetes, in this type the body does not respond to insulin, although the pancreas continues to secrete it, and it is usually diagnosed after the age of 45 years. 

Many genes have been associated with this type of Disease, so it is somewhat a hereditary disease, in addition to other factors that may increase the chance of infection, such as suffering from high blood pressure, high blood triglycerides, excessive alcohol intake and obesity. 

Gestational diabetes usually affects pregnant women in the second half of their pregnancy. Although the disease disappears after childbirth, women who have suffered from it may develop type 2 diabetes more than others. They may also give birth to large children.

Diabetes Symptoms:

 Most people have same symptoms ofvdiabetes, regardless of the type  they experience. The most prominent symptoms and signs are as follows: 
- General fatigue, and the feeling of fatigue constantly: This is due to the inability of the body to take advantage of glucose as fuel. And then turn to the use of other sources of energy, such as fat, for example, the patient feels tired persistently.
- Unwarranted weight loss: Although the patient's appetite for food is not reduced but weight loss can happen due to the inability of the body to take advantage of the calories it takes. The loss of sugar and water in urine also contributes to thevcondition of drought associated with weight loss. 
- Feeling very thirsty: Because of the increase in blood sugar, the body tries to reduce those ratios by increasing the level of water, the brain sends signals in the form of a sense of thirst so that the patient drinks more water. 

- Frequent urination: This is another way in which the body tries to resist the high blood sugar levels by excreting it heavily in the urine.
- Excessive eating: This is due to the role of insulin in the stimulation of feeling hungry, and with an increase in the proportion in the second type of diabetes the feeling of hunger grows. 
Recurrent Infections : Because of the weakness of the immunity suffered by diabetics, in addition to the presence of sugar and its abundance in the body; This stimulates the growth of bacteria.

- Misdiagnosis of the mental state: This arises from many complications of diabetes, often resulting from a significant rise in the level of glucose in the blood. 
- Wound healing delay : High levels of glucose prevent the white blood cells from functioning properly, exposing wounds to inflammation and delaying the buildup. 

Treatment of diabetes :
The treatment of diabetes in various ways aims to to reduce the levels of sugar in the blood . The most important methods of treatment of diabetes are as follows:
General treatment of all types of diabetes: These methods are no less important than drugs, aiming to maintain the ideal body weight.
- Healthy diet, concentrated on fruits, vegetables and grains, includes high nutritional value, high fiber content, and low fat. Reducing intake of animal products, refined carbohydrates, and sweets. It is also necessary to exercise continuously, as this contributes to the introduction of glucose molecules into cells, in addition to its role in increasing the response of cells to the hormone insulin. 
 All diabetics must constantly measure their blood sugar level to ensure that the body responds to treatment, and to prevent complications from high sugar levels.
 Insulin therapy: It is usually used to treat the first type of diabetes, and if the second type patient does not respond to other drugs. 

Insulin has many forms, some of which do not start immediately, and those usually persist for long periods of time. It is not usually given orally, but in the form of injections, as well as through so-called insulin pumps. 

Drugs that do not contain insulin are given either orally or by injection, and they have many types. Some of them stimulate the secretion of insulin from the pancreas, which inhibits the production of glucose from the liver, and there are types that increase the response of the body's cells to insulin. The most popular of these drugs and the first used for the treatment of diabetes is metformin drug. 
These drugs include rosiglitazone, chloropropamide, ribaglanide, acarbose and others. 
Pancreatic transplantation: This process is especially beneficial for type I patients. When this process is successful, the patient does not need to inject insulin again, but it also carries the risk of rejection of the new organ. This procedure is therefore usually performed for patients who do not respond to insulin, or for those who will undergo a kidney transplant.