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How Do Diabetics Care About Their Feet And Why?

As a diabetic you must have read or heard from your physician that it’s very important to daily check your feet, and that your feet are more prone to trauma, infections and even abcess format than every body else, but why is your feet at danger of these problems, and how can you prevent them early?

Your feet is susceptible to the previously mentioned problems because of the following: 

A. Decrease or loss of sensation:
Diabetes can affect nerves, especially the peripheral nerves meaning the nerves that supply the hands and feet to give them the ability of sensation, once these nerves are affected sensation will gradually decrease in these areas especially the feet so if you had a minor trauma like a pin prick or a small wound you may not feel them, and they may get worse. 
And the best way to prevent your nerves from being damaged by diabetes is to keep your blood sugar levels within the normal range. 

B. High liability for infection :
Excess sugar in blood makes it a very good environment for bacteria to attack and live in there, so again, controlling blood sugar is a vital step for decreasing the degree of infection.

C. Immune system dysfunction
When you have an injury somewhere, for example your foot, some of the first cells that come to act there are the white blood cells, which arrive at the wound area to fight against foreign bodies, and prevent wound infection, but in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus this process is slower and is much inhibited by excess blood sugar.

All these factors contribute to the incidence of wound infections,  which are sometimes highly resistant to antibiotics, and they heal very slowly or even get worst. In the US 50% of foot amputations are due to diabetes.

So, how to care about your feet?

1. Inspect your foot daily for the presence of any redness, punctures or pus,  you can ask someone to help you, or use a mirror.

2. Wear comfortable shoes :
Wear comfortable shoes that are exactly your size, because smaller and lager shoes can cause many troubles due to repeated friction which may cause ulcerations.
Check your shoe before wearing and make sure they are completely empty.
Also you need to make  to wear clean and comfortable socks.

3. Cut your nails with caution : 
Cut your nails carefully, trying not to cut too much, and you may also ask someone to help you.

4. Clean your feet daily  :
Make sure to use warm water, not cold or hot, make sure to test the temperature of the water as it may be hot and cause injury to you without you realizing  that.

5. Let the doctor check your feet for you :
It’s good to go every few months for a feet check which is better to be done by a surgeon.

At the end we must insist on the fact that the best way to prevent feet problems from the start is by controlling your blood sugar by following an appropriate diet, a healthy lifestyle, and taking your medications as prescribed by your doctor.

How To Know If You're Having Diabetic Ketoacidosis? And What To Do Then?

The primary source of energy for the body is the glucose, which is generated from carbohydrates break down, and glucose cannot be used by the cell except in the presence of sufficient amounts of insulin, but in case of Diabetes where insulin is insufficient (type l diabetes), or where cells don’t respond to insulin (type ll diabetes), glucose sometimes cannot be utilized properly, so the body searches for a different fuel to get energy from, and that fuel is fats.
The problem with fat utilization Is that it produces a substance called ketones, these ketones when become in excess they can cause multiple problems , some of them is to make the blood acidic and the patient dehydrated and this may lead to many complications.
So. Diabetic ketoacidosis, or ketosis  a medical emergency, that should be dealt with very wisely. In this article we are going to know how to recognize this condition  and how to act if it happened to us or to someone we know.
Symptoms of diabetic ketosis:
1. Excessive urination.
2. Extreme thirst. 
3. Abdominal pain.
4. Nausea and vomiting.
5. Deep and rapid breathing.
6. fruity or acetone like breath smell.
7. Decreased level of consciousness.

So, what are the causes of Diabetic ketosis?
A. Emotional or physical stress.
B. Illness , especially infections like respiratory or urinary tract infections.
C. Missing medication doses.
D. Drugs or alcohol use 

Complications of diabetic ketoacidosis:
Ketoacidosis can lead to a variety of problems including :
- Brain oedema (brain swelling) and this cam be mainly due to the imbalance in blood composition, as it may become very acidic.
- Kidney failure: severe dehydration due to excessive urination and vomiting may lead to renal failure in few cases if not managed promptly.
- Diabetic coma.
- Pulmonary oedema (excess fluids in the lungs). 

How to deal with Diabetic Ketosis at home :-
1. Measure your blood sugar level: 
If you have any of the above symptoms and you suspect that you may have ketosis while you have your kits at home then measure your blood sugar immediately.
2. If your blood glucose was high and you have the kits for measuring blood ketones then it will really help you to measure the levels of ketones in your urine, if it’s  below 0.6 mmol/L then it’s normal and it is unlikely that you have DKA. 
If the level is between 0.6 to 1.5 mmol/L this may indicate a small degree of ketosis and you should check again 2 hours later.
If it’s more than 2 mmol/L then there’s a high risk that you may enter a state of ketosis, and you should contact your doctor or seek medical help at hospital.
3. Contact your doctor and tell him what you feel, he’ll probably advice you to go to the hospital, if he thought that you should go then go immediately.

At hospital they might admit you for a while, rehydrate your body by giving you intravenous fluids and measure your urine output to monitor the condition of your kidney.
They will also give you insulin doses monitored to decrease blood glucose and ketone levels.

Hypoglycemia and how to deal with it

Hypo glycaemia ( low blood sugar level), is 
one of the most common and serious complications of Diabetes, and this condition can occur due to many causes, like :
1. Delaying your meal, having your meal late is a very common cause of hypoglycemia, and that’s why it’s better to be very restrict about your meal time, and to carry your lunch with you especially when you’re having a long day at work or at university.

2. Having an overdose of your diabetic medications, your medications which are prescribed by your doctor, act in controlling your blood sugar level by lowering it to the normal if you’re taking it within the recommended doses, but if someday you accidentally had a larger dose than what you’re supposed to, this may lower your blood sugar level to the degree of hypoglycemia.

3. Having smaller meals than you should, Eating enough amount of food in your meal is essential to have a constant level of blood sugar, and having a meal rich in fibers will make digestion more slow which will help in keeping that level of sugar more stable

4. Doing extreme exercise that requires an unusually high effort for you, this might actually consume energy by consuming glucose which means decreasing blood sugar level and this may lead to hypoglycemia.

5. Having a disease that consumes body energy like diarrhea or vomiting, leading to a massive increase in blood sugar.

What are the symptoms of low blood sugar?

Symptoms vary from a patient to another, and they are not specific to hypoglycemia, but the most common symptoms of them are hunger, dizziness, anxiousness, Sweating, tremors or shaking, visual disturbances, headache, and palpitations.
These symptoms are considered initial symptoms, and if not treated early the patient can enter a state of fainting and complete loss of consciousness or seizures. 
As we mentioned, symptoms are not constant, and that’s why you should regularly monitor your blood glucose levels and compare the symptoms, to know what kind of symptoms you have during a hypoglycemic state, and it is also preferred to teach these things to your family si they can act quickly and help you in case of an emergency. 

What to do when you have hypoglycemia?
Hypoglycemia is a serious condition, but luckily it can be easily managed by following the following steps:

A. Measure your blood sugar levels as quick as you can hypo glycaemia is considered as having a blood glucose level lower than 70 mg/dL, or 3.9 millimoles per liter (mmol/L).

B. Immediately take a few discs of readily soluble sugar or hard sugar bars , a candy bar, or a sweetened juice or drink as a source of sugar and the amounts should be as following :
Five to six pieces of hard candy. 
Four ounces (120 milliliters) of fruit juice or regular — not diet — soda
One tablespoon (15 milliliters) of sugar, jelly or honey. 
Four glucose tablets (available without a prescription at most pharmacies)
A serving of glucose gel (read the label for amount)
C. Stop doing any physical activity, and take some rest, and if you’re driving your car it’s better to stop immediately.

D. Measure your blood sugar level 20 minutes later, and if it’s still low you may have another source of sugar. 

E. If this case recurred for many times, look for the precepitating factors and  treat them (i.e. Check your meal timing and amount, check if you have any other disease that may cause hypoglycemia, recheck your doses and consult your physician to know id you should change the dose or the type of your diabetic medications.

Seven Things A Diabetic Patient Should Regularly Check

Being a diabetic patient doesn’t mean that you should be worried about your health and what could be happened to your body because of your disease as a complication of it all day long, no, a diabetic patient can actually lead a very normal life, but there are certain things that he should pay attention for.
In this topic we are going to mention some of the most important things that a diabetic patient should regularly check so that he can be able to know his current condition and so he’ll feel more relaxed.

1. Watch what you eat : 
eating can be something that you really care about as a diabetic, and you should, because uncontrolled diabetes which can occur due to uncontrolled eating can be a major cause for diabetes complications, like : heart diseases, kidney diseases, and eye problems.
There are some foods that should be avoided by diabetics to maintain a healthy level of blood sugar, like :
Sugar sweetened beverages, white bread and pasta, honey and maple syrup, and French fries.

2. Check your feet daily :
Diabetes can decrease the sense of feeling in your feet as it affects the peripheral nerves in your limbs, so you may not feel an injury that may have happened to your foot like a wound due to a pin brick for an example, and this isn’t the only problem, another problem is that wounds in diabetics doesn’t heal as in normal people, because high blood sugar delays wound healing, and as a result a small wound will take a very long time to heal, and it may deteriorate and become more big and infected.

3. Check your blood sugar levels :
Checking your blood sugar levels daily will help you to know the situation of your disease, and it will also help you regulate what and when to take your medications, this will help you to avoid complications and it will let you know when to meet your doctor.

4. Exercise Regularly :
Heart diseases are one of the most important complications of Diabetes, and Exercising regularly can prevent these diseases.
Simple regular exercises can be of a great help to your health, even simple daily walking in your street for at least 15 minutes will have a great positive effect on your general health, and on your heart health.

5. Take a small snack with you :
It’s well known that hypoglycemia ( low blood sugar level) is a very common complication of Diabetes that may happen at any time, and if not detected and managed early, it can cause fainting, that’s why taking a small snack, like dried fruits can help you rise blood sugar as soon as you feel the initial symptoms of hypoglycemia.
These initial symptoms include Dizziness, Sweating, Hunger, Irritability or moodiness, Anxiety or nervousness and Headache.

6. Have your medications in time :
As we previously mentioned, uncontrolled diabetes is one of the worst problems about the disease, because it can lead to diabetes complications even in young ages.
Good dietary control, and taking your medications in time and the way that they were prescribed by your doctor can greatly help in controlling blood sugar levels and thus prevent the appearance of complications.

7. Check your vision annually:
Retinal diseases can be a major concern to diabetics, as visual deterioration usually occurs gradually in many years, and checking with your ophthalmologist every year will be very helpful to the earl detection and management of these problems.

Sticking to these habits will help you be more comfortable with your disease and to have a better control on it. It will also be better to decrease stress and relax more often, as stress elevates cortisol hormone level and this will lead to subsequent increase in blood sugar levels.

How to prevent diabetes

Diabetes is a serious disease that affects a person's life,Recently, it has been observed that the incidence of infection is increasing because of the rapid and lazy lifestyle and lack of information that people carry.
Diabetes :
Diabetes is an increase in blood sugar Due to the inability of glucose to move to cells For some reason we will come to mention later To supply it with the energy it needs and thus increase its rate in the blood,The hormone responsible for regulating blood sugar is insulinAny imbalance in its production causes diabetes.
Diabetes results in many serious complications such as Wound healing   and burns healing delay. It is always advised to get diabetics as far away as possible from different injuries because the process of delayed wound healing may cause gangrene And can lead to cutting off the injured organ. Diabetes also affects nerves and eye causing injury with retinal degeneration.
Types of diabetes :
Diabetes is divided into three types :
Type I : It is caused by the lack of insulin or  its low quantity. You can not regulate blood sugar, The organ responsible for the production of insulin is the pancreas.
Type II : It is caused by the inability of insulin to regulate blood sugar And transfer it to the cells in the form of glucose.
Type III : It is the pregnancy diabetes that affects some pregnant women in some cases, It is rare. 

Causes of Diabetes :
- Genetic factors have a significant role in the rate of getting diabetes  , the more people in the family having diabetes, the higherthe riskof gettingthe diseas. 
- Weight gain and obesity helps to weaken the pancreatic function, As well as eating large amounts of meals that contain a lot of fat and a large proportion of sugars are some of the most important risk factors of diabetes.
- Lack of exercise and lack of movement.
- Smoking.

Prevention Of Diabetes:
- Eat healthy food rich in vegetables and fruits.
- Stay away from takeaway and fatty meals high in calories and fat. Eating high-sugar sweets should be minimized.
- Leave smoking and stay away from places where smokers gather for not inhaling the smell of harmful smoke.
- Try to relax and stay away from excess stress.
- Exercise to stimulate blood circulation on the one hand, and on the other to get rid of excess weight and obesity And fat burning .

How To Maintain Your Blood Sugar Levels Within the Normal Range

Our societies suffer from many health problems and diseases because of the changing patterns of human behaviour, changing patterns of nutrition, and the contribution of various environmental factors like pollution and noise.
All of this contributed in the occurrence of some of the diseases whether physical or psychological and among those diseases that spread in our communities is Diabetes.
The statistics show an increase in the proportion of the incidence of the disease in all age groups, and an increase of the treatment burden of this disease on the individual and the community, and also the burden on government with a large budget allocated to treat the patients.
what is diabetes? What is the treatment? And what is the way that keeps the blood sugar of the patient within the normal range?

Normal Ranges Of Blood Sugar :

Diabetes occurs either due to the result of deficiency and lack of insulin secretion (i.e. insufficient insulin hormone in the body because of the destruction pancreatic cells by the immune system ) , which is called type l diabetes , Or it may occur due to The inappropriate response of the  body cells to the hormone insulin, and thus the malfunction of the hormone insulin, which is primarily responsible for the conversion of sugar in the blood to energy,  so the amount of sugar in the blood increases , which may cause many complications like:
-          injury to the kidneys , nerves and blood vessels .
-         The patient may develop vision loss and other serious complications, so the diabetic patient should maintain a normal level of blood sugar to avoid these symptoms and complications.
And maintaining normal blood sugar  levels is acheived by:
- following a special diet, while maintaining a constant amount of meals and having them at certain fixed times.
- weight loss and regular exercise on a daily basis as it helps to improve blood sugar levels .
-  Avoid sugar and sweets and replace them with industrial sweeteners.
- Eat fruits and natural unsweetened fruit juice.


How To Know If You Have High Blood Sugar ?

What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects humans. It is caused by the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin to the body, or because of insulin resistance by tissues .
But , what is insulin?
The insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which regulates the amount of sugar in the blood, when diabetes occurs , the pancreas will be unable to secret insulin or it secretes it but the body cannot use it, and thus the amount of sugar in the blood increases, and this leads to the damage of many body organs and such as nerves and blood vessels and others .
 Symptoms of diabetes:
 The symptoms of diabetes vary from person to person depending on the type of diabetes the person has. There are three types of diabetes that will be discussed in this topic: type I diabetes , type II and gestational diabetes, and often the symptoms are not clear, the person does not know that he has the disease, except when  he has the tests that confirm it, and the symptoms of diabetes can be summarized in:
-         Persistant feeling of thirst
-         urination at close times and in large amounts.
-         Decreased weight for unspecific reasons.
-         Persistant  feeling of hungry.
-          confusion of vision and other sight disorders .
-         Feeling tired.

Types of diabetes:
 There are several types of diabetes, namely:

Type I diabetes: It is sometimes called childhood diabetes, because it usually affects young children, and it is associated with  lack of insulin production, and it requires patients to take insulin on daily basis, and so far Doctors and researchers could not know the cause of this type of diabetes, or ways to prevent it, the symptoms that accompany this type include:
-         feeling thirsty .
-         - excessive urination.
-         weight loss.
-         - vision disorders.
-         - feeling of fatigue and hunger.

these symptoms may suddenly appear in the patient of this type of Diabetes.

 Diabetes type II: This type of diabetes is caused by the inability of the body to effectively use insulin produced by the body, and this type is not linked to the lack of insulin production as in the first type.
This type of diabetes is found in 90% of people with diabetes around the world Especially in the elderly and it’s due to the lack of physical activity or excessive weight gain.
 Symptoms of this type are similar to symptoms of the first type including thirst, disturbances in vision, urination, feeling tired and hungry, but they do not appear clearly as in the first type, so the patient may not know that he suffers from diabetes unless when the disease worsens and the complications emerge.

Gestational diabetes: This type of diabetes is linked to pregnancy and type l and type ll ,usually  it cannot be detected by the patient easily, and usually it is detected during the routine tests conducted before birth, and the cause of the disease is that the placenta - during pregnancy - secretes hormones to support pregnancy, and these hormones make the cells more resistant to insulin, and in the late two thirds of pregnancy, the placenta grows in size and thus secretes a larger amount of these hormones that resist insulin and the pancreas responds in natural cases by producing larger quantities of Insulin, but the pancreas may reach a stage where it cannot keep up with this resistance ,thus Insulin accumulates in the blood and cells cannot use it.
All pregnant women are at risk of developing gestational diabetes, but it is more likely to occur in women over the age of 25 and overweight women and those with genetic susceptibility .
 It is noteworthy that the majority of women who have gestational diabetes give birth to healthy children, but if the level of sugar in the blood of the pregnant was high and unmonitored, it can cause health problems for the mother and the fetus, such as:
- abnormally big sized baby .
-  large amounts of blood sugar in the child may also increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes when he gets older .
-in some serious cases this leads to the death of the fetus.

Complications :
Diabetes can cause serious health complications, including diseases in the heart, kidneys, blood vessels, eyes and nerves.
It also causes cardiovascular disease and can lead to strokes and heart attacks, which causes death in half of people with diabetes around the world. .
 Diabetes causes nerve damage in many disorders, which appear as tingling or pain in the limbs.
 It may also cause kidney failure, which causes the death of 200%?? of people with diabetes.
Diabetes can cause major retinal disorders that can lead to blindness in 2% of cases. It affects small blood vessels in the eyes, which damage the retina and cause vision problems.
 The following tips can be used to prevent or delay the onset of diabetes:
-         Maintain a healthy weight and lose weight by exercising daily, or at least walking for 30 minutes a day and eating a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables at a rate of five servings per day.
-         decrease sugars and saturated fat in the diet.
-         Avoid smoking and other habits that negatively affect the blood vessels.

Diagnosis and treatment :
Diabetes can be diagnosed by simple, low-cost procedures such as blood glucose tests during fasting or random blood glucose tests. If the level of sugar in the blood is high, the doctor will usually recommend other tests to determine the type of the Diabetes, either type l or ll, and therefore determine the appropriate treatment in this case, and he can recommend the patient to test the hemoglobin in the blood . Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed during regular tests in pregnancy.