How To Know If You Have High Blood Sugar ?

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What is diabetes?
Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects humans. It is caused by the inability of the pancreas to produce enough insulin to the body, or because of insulin resistance by tissues .
But , what is insulin?
The insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas, which regulates the amount of sugar in the blood, when diabetes occurs , the pancreas will be unable to secret insulin or it secretes it but the body cannot use it, and thus the amount of sugar in the blood increases, and this leads to the damage of many body organs and such as nerves and blood vessels and others .
 Symptoms of diabetes:
 The symptoms of diabetes vary from person to person depending on the type of diabetes the person has. There are three types of diabetes that will be discussed in this topic: type I diabetes , type II and gestational diabetes, and often the symptoms are not clear, the person does not know that he has the disease, except when  he has the tests that confirm it, and the symptoms of diabetes can be summarized in:
-         Persistant feeling of thirst
-         urination at close times and in large amounts.
-         Decreased weight for unspecific reasons.
-         Persistant  feeling of hungry.
-          confusion of vision and other sight disorders .
-         Feeling tired.

Types of diabetes:
 There are several types of diabetes, namely:

Type I diabetes: It is sometimes called childhood diabetes, because it usually affects young children, and it is associated with  lack of insulin production, and it requires patients to take insulin on daily basis, and so far Doctors and researchers could not know the cause of this type of diabetes, or ways to prevent it, the symptoms that accompany this type include:
-         feeling thirsty .
-         - excessive urination.
-         weight loss.
-         - vision disorders.
-         - feeling of fatigue and hunger.

these symptoms may suddenly appear in the patient of this type of Diabetes.

 Diabetes type II: This type of diabetes is caused by the inability of the body to effectively use insulin produced by the body, and this type is not linked to the lack of insulin production as in the first type.
This type of diabetes is found in 90% of people with diabetes around the world Especially in the elderly and it’s due to the lack of physical activity or excessive weight gain.
 Symptoms of this type are similar to symptoms of the first type including thirst, disturbances in vision, urination, feeling tired and hungry, but they do not appear clearly as in the first type, so the patient may not know that he suffers from diabetes unless when the disease worsens and the complications emerge.

Gestational diabetes: This type of diabetes is linked to pregnancy and type l and type ll ,usually  it cannot be detected by the patient easily, and usually it is detected during the routine tests conducted before birth, and the cause of the disease is that the placenta - during pregnancy - secretes hormones to support pregnancy, and these hormones make the cells more resistant to insulin, and in the late two thirds of pregnancy, the placenta grows in size and thus secretes a larger amount of these hormones that resist insulin and the pancreas responds in natural cases by producing larger quantities of Insulin, but the pancreas may reach a stage where it cannot keep up with this resistance ,thus Insulin accumulates in the blood and cells cannot use it.
All pregnant women are at risk of developing gestational diabetes, but it is more likely to occur in women over the age of 25 and overweight women and those with genetic susceptibility .
 It is noteworthy that the majority of women who have gestational diabetes give birth to healthy children, but if the level of sugar in the blood of the pregnant was high and unmonitored, it can cause health problems for the mother and the fetus, such as:
- abnormally big sized baby .
-jaundice.
-  large amounts of blood sugar in the child may also increase the risk of developing type 2 diabetes when he gets older .
-in some serious cases this leads to the death of the fetus.

Complications :
Diabetes can cause serious health complications, including diseases in the heart, kidneys, blood vessels, eyes and nerves.
It also causes cardiovascular disease and can lead to strokes and heart attacks, which causes death in half of people with diabetes around the world. .
 Diabetes causes nerve damage in many disorders, which appear as tingling or pain in the limbs.
 It may also cause kidney failure, which causes the death of 200%?? of people with diabetes.
Diabetes can cause major retinal disorders that can lead to blindness in 2% of cases. It affects small blood vessels in the eyes, which damage the retina and cause vision problems.
Prevention:
 The following tips can be used to prevent or delay the onset of diabetes:
-         Maintain a healthy weight and lose weight by exercising daily, or at least walking for 30 minutes a day and eating a balanced diet rich in fruits and vegetables at a rate of five servings per day.
-         decrease sugars and saturated fat in the diet.
-         Avoid smoking and other habits that negatively affect the blood vessels.

Diagnosis and treatment :
Diabetes can be diagnosed by simple, low-cost procedures such as blood glucose tests during fasting or random blood glucose tests. If the level of sugar in the blood is high, the doctor will usually recommend other tests to determine the type of the Diabetes, either type l or ll, and therefore determine the appropriate treatment in this case, and he can recommend the patient to test the hemoglobin in the blood . Gestational diabetes is usually diagnosed during regular tests in pregnancy.
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Living with Diabetes

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