How to treat diabetes

Diabetes is a very common chronic disease, which the patient suffers from throughout his life, and it affects the ability of the body to extract the energy of glucose sugar from food.
 In a healthy human body, carbohydrates and sugars in food are broken down into  glucose molecules. This molecule supplies the body's cells with the energy needed to perform its vital functions, but it needs  insulin hormone to help it enter the cells. 

In diabetes, either the body's ability to produce enough insulin, or the insulin ability to function in cells , or both, is reduced.
 Since glucose can not enter the cells, it accumulates in the blood and damages small blood vessels in the kidneys, heart, eyes and nervous system. Therefore, failure to properly treat diabetes results in the destruction of these vital organs, thus endangering the patient's life.

 Diabetes has three main types: type I, type II, and Gestational diabetes . The first type is an autoimmune disease in which antibodies attack the cells responsible for the secretion of insulin, so the pancreas stops the secretion of insulin or begins to excrete insufficient amounts to regulate the level of glucose in the blood. About 10% of diabetics in the United States suffer from this type of disease. The first type of diabetes is usually diagnosed in childhood or early adolescence. These patients rely on insulin injections on a daily basis to control the disease. 

   The second type is the most common, with a percentage of about 90% of people with diabetes, in this type the body does not respond to insulin, although the pancreas continues to secrete it, and it is usually diagnosed after the age of 45 years. 

Many genes have been associated with this type of Disease, so it is somewhat a hereditary disease, in addition to other factors that may increase the chance of infection, such as suffering from high blood pressure, high blood triglycerides, excessive alcohol intake and obesity. 

Gestational diabetes usually affects pregnant women in the second half of their pregnancy. Although the disease disappears after childbirth, women who have suffered from it may develop type 2 diabetes more than others. They may also give birth to large children.

Diabetes Symptoms:

 Most people have same symptoms ofvdiabetes, regardless of the type  they experience. The most prominent symptoms and signs are as follows: 
- General fatigue, and the feeling of fatigue constantly: This is due to the inability of the body to take advantage of glucose as fuel. And then turn to the use of other sources of energy, such as fat, for example, the patient feels tired persistently.
- Unwarranted weight loss: Although the patient's appetite for food is not reduced but weight loss can happen due to the inability of the body to take advantage of the calories it takes. The loss of sugar and water in urine also contributes to thevcondition of drought associated with weight loss. 
- Feeling very thirsty: Because of the increase in blood sugar, the body tries to reduce those ratios by increasing the level of water, the brain sends signals in the form of a sense of thirst so that the patient drinks more water. 

- Frequent urination: This is another way in which the body tries to resist the high blood sugar levels by excreting it heavily in the urine.
- Excessive eating: This is due to the role of insulin in the stimulation of feeling hungry, and with an increase in the proportion in the second type of diabetes the feeling of hunger grows. 
Recurrent Infections : Because of the weakness of the immunity suffered by diabetics, in addition to the presence of sugar and its abundance in the body; This stimulates the growth of bacteria.

- Misdiagnosis of the mental state: This arises from many complications of diabetes, often resulting from a significant rise in the level of glucose in the blood. 
- Wound healing delay : High levels of glucose prevent the white blood cells from functioning properly, exposing wounds to inflammation and delaying the buildup. 

Treatment of diabetes :
The treatment of diabetes in various ways aims to to reduce the levels of sugar in the blood . The most important methods of treatment of diabetes are as follows:
General treatment of all types of diabetes: These methods are no less important than drugs, aiming to maintain the ideal body weight.
- Healthy diet, concentrated on fruits, vegetables and grains, includes high nutritional value, high fiber content, and low fat. Reducing intake of animal products, refined carbohydrates, and sweets. It is also necessary to exercise continuously, as this contributes to the introduction of glucose molecules into cells, in addition to its role in increasing the response of cells to the hormone insulin. 
 All diabetics must constantly measure their blood sugar level to ensure that the body responds to treatment, and to prevent complications from high sugar levels.
 Insulin therapy: It is usually used to treat the first type of diabetes, and if the second type patient does not respond to other drugs. 

Insulin has many forms, some of which do not start immediately, and those usually persist for long periods of time. It is not usually given orally, but in the form of injections, as well as through so-called insulin pumps. 

Drugs that do not contain insulin are given either orally or by injection, and they have many types. Some of them stimulate the secretion of insulin from the pancreas, which inhibits the production of glucose from the liver, and there are types that increase the response of the body's cells to insulin. The most popular of these drugs and the first used for the treatment of diabetes is metformin drug. 
These drugs include rosiglitazone, chloropropamide, ribaglanide, acarbose and others. 
Pancreatic transplantation: This process is especially beneficial for type I patients. When this process is successful, the patient does not need to inject insulin again, but it also carries the risk of rejection of the new organ. This procedure is therefore usually performed for patients who do not respond to insulin, or for those who will undergo a kidney transplant.

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